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The Moon

NASA | Evolution of the Moon
How did the moon come to look the way it does now? This video shows all. They left out no explosions. From year to year, the moon never seems to change. Craters and other formations appear to be permanent now, but the moon didn't always look like this. Thanks to NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, we now have a better look at some of the moon's history. Learn more in this video!

This video is public domain and can be downloaded at: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/goto?10930

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera
LRO Image Gallery

NASA | Tour of the Moon   Raw Video: First Video From Moon's Far Side
Although the moon has remained largely unchanged during human history, our understanding of it and how it has evolved over time has evolved dramatically. Thanks to new measurements, we have new and unprecedented views of its surface, along with new insight into how it and other rocky planets in our solar system came to look the way they do. See some of the sights and learn more about the moon here!

This video is public domain and can be downloaded at: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/goto?10929
  A spacecraft orbiting the moon has captured the first video of the lunar far side that people on Earth can't see. The video was captured by one of NASA's twin Grail probes using MoonKAM, a camer a which will eventually be used by students. http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=f1uuFwYHwQI&feature =share

The GRAIL Mission: A Fact Sheet https://moonkam.ucsd.edu/ about/grail_fact_sheet


Interactive Map of the Moon

Click within an area on the Moon to access a detailed photomap. For a map of the Lunar far side, please click here
Interactive Video Map of the Moon
Click on the relevant area to see that area filmed from in the UK! Amazing videos from John Lenard Walson!

Moon Phases

The Supermoon of May 5 2012
What a Supermoon looks like

How NASA's Grail Probes Will Map the Moon's Gravity


April 2012

April 29 2012

Poster   The Apollo 11 Mission took place on July 16, 1969. On July 21, 1969, we walked on the Moon for the first time in human history.
The pictures were fuzzy and in black and white.
On July 21, 2012, we are taken back to the Moon.
CELESTIAL bring s you the"full color" photography of the Moon taken during the Clementine Mission in 1994. The landscapes are breath-taking. The color photography is stunning.
Prepare for a journey to a new world full of mysteries and color.
- Sign up as an exhibitor and present the film on your web sites and You Tube Channels.
- Sign up as a viewer and receive a special download available ONLY for those who register with TBLN Films

April 2 2012

Earth Has Scores of Mini-Moons, Models Predict About a thousand unseen objects are in orbit at any time, study says.

The asteroid Ida and its moon, Dactyl.
The asteroid Ida and its moon, Dactyl. Similar but much smaller asteroids may orbit Earth as mini-moons. Image courtesy NASA
Andrew Fazekas for National Geographic News Published April 2, 2012 | Link

Our moon is not alone: Scores of unseen mini-moons are now in orbit around Earth , new computer models predict.

What's more, these tiny moons occasionally plummet through our planet's atmosphere, creating brilliant fireballs, the researchers say.

The findings are based on supercomputer simulations of ten million asteroids known to fly through the Earth-moon system. The models show that objects that circle the sun in orbits similar to Earth's are likely to be captured as mini-moons.

(Also see: "Trojan Asteroid Found Sharing Earth's Orbit—A First." )

"We accurately tracked their motion—including the gravitational tugs from the sun and all the other planets and big asteroids in the solar system—and found that 18,000 of [these asteroids] were captured and briefly went into orbit around the Earth," said study co-author Robert Jedicke , an astronomer at the University of Hawaii.

"We estimate that there are one or two washing machine-size mini-moons and about a thousand larger than a softball [orbiting Earth] at any time," he said.

(Related: "Earth Had Two Moons, New Model Suggests." )

The captured moons would orbit Earth in twisted, convoluted paths. In fact, the simulations show that most mini-moons hang around for less than a year before they're either spit back out to orbit the sun or end up on a collision course with Earth, Jedicke said.

"The moon perturbs the orbit of about one in a thousand, so they hit the Earth—some of the meteors that you see at night are actually mini-moons falling to Earth."

Prehistoric Double Moons?

In addition to small space rocks, the models predict that once in awhile Earth captures something even larger.

The team's estimates show that every half century an object the size of a large dump truck—about 33 feet (10 meters) across—joins our roughly 2,100-mile-wide (3,400-kilometer-wide) moon.

And even larger objects—each the size of a football field, or about 328 feet (100 meters) across—can be captured by Earth's gravity every hundred thousand years.

At that size, Jedicke speculates, the extra moons might even be visible to the naked eye.

"A hundred thousand years is about the time frame that human beings have been doing things like leaving their handprints on cave walls, so maybe in that time frame somebody once actually looked into the sky and saw a mini-moon moving across the sky," he added.

(Related: "Moon Oddly Magnetic-Giant Asteroid Crash to Blame?" )

Jedicke and his team are the first to make predictions about mini-moon sizes and distribution, and it appears their predictions are fairly accurate.

The only known mini-moon was a 9.8-foot-wide (3-meter-wide) asteroid dubbed 2006 RH120, which orbited Earth less than a year before resuming its previous life orbiting the sun.

"The size and orbital properties of 2006 RH120 are perfectly consistent with our models," Jedicke said. "Had we done our study ten years ago, we could have predicted that an object like 2006 RH120 would be detected soon."

Mini-Moons Still Hard to Spot

Even with the new simulations, the researchers caution that actually seeing more mini-moons will be challenging, because the objects are relatively small and thus faint.

In addition, the gravitational effects that draw in Earth's extra moons tend to set them whipping around the planet at high speeds, making them even harder to pinpoint.

(Find out about an asteroid that recently crossed between Earth and the moon .)

"We are currently trying to figure out how to use astronomical surveys to spot them regularly," Jedicke said.

For instance, "the largest ones could be detectable by the advanced amateur astronomer with a 50-centimeter-diameter [20-inch-diameter] telescope," he said.

"But discovering new mini-moons will require an asteroid survey that covers much of the sky in a single night and detects objects that are very faint."

The study of Earth's mini-moons was published in March in the journal Icarus .

March 2012
March 22 2012
Press Release http://www.nasa.gov/home/ hqnews/2012/mar/ HQ_12-093_MoonKam.html

  NASA'S Grail MoonKam Returns First Student-Selected Lunar Images

One of two NASA spacecraft orbiting the moon has beamed back the first student-requested pictures of the lunar surface from its onboard camera. Fourth grade students from the Emily Dickinson Elementary School in Bozeman, Mont., received the honor of making the first image selections by winning a nationwide competition to rename the two spacecraft.

The image was taken by the MoonKam, or Moon Knowledge Acquired by Middle school students. Previously named Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) A and B, the twin spacecraft are now called Ebb and Flow. Both washing-machine-sized orbiters carry a small MoonKAM camera. Over 60 student-requested images were taken aboard the Ebb spacecraft from March 15-17 and downlinked to Earth on March 20.

"MoonKAM is based on the premise that if your average picture is worth a thousand words, then a picture from lunar orbit may be worth a classroom full of engineering and science degrees," said Maria Zuber, GRAIL mission principal investigator from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Mass. "Through MoonKAM, we have an opportunity to reach out to the next generation of scientists and engineers. It is great to see things off to such a positive start."

GRAIL is NASA's first planetary mission to carry instruments fully dedicated to education and public outreach. Students will select target areas on the lunar surface and request images to study from the GRAIL MoonKAM Mission Operations Center in San Diego.

The MoonKAM program is led by Sally Ride, America's first woman in space, and her team at Sally Ride Science in collaboration with undergraduate students at the University of California in San Diego. More than 2,700 schools spanning 52 countries are using the MoonKAM cameras.

"What might seem like just a cool activity for these kids may very well have a profound impact on their futures," Ride said. "The students really are excited about MoonKAM, and that translates into an excitement about science and engineering."

Launched in September 2011, Ebb and Flow will answer longstanding questions about the moon and give scientists a better understanding of how Earth and other rocky planets in the solar system formed.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., manages the GRAIL mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. GRAIL is part of the Discovery Program managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. Lockheed Martin Space Systems in Denver built the spacecraft.

To view the student-requested images, visit: http:// images.moonkam.ucsd.edu/
For more information about MoonKAM, visit: https://moonkam.ucsd.edu/
For more information about GRAIL, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/grail



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Lunar and Planetary Science
Earths Moon
Exploring the Moon Educator Guide
Moon: Nightsky Observer
The Full Moon Atlas : Lunar Navigator : Map of the Moon
The Moon's Far side
Virtual Moon Atlas
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera
LRO Image Gallery

Lunar Missions Timeline Details of robotic and human spacecraft missions that have been sent to the Moon to explore the lunar surface and determine the Moon's origin

Lunar Images and Maps
Lunar Samples Atlas
3D Models of Future Lunar Landing Sites
Apollo Missions

Apollo Missions The six Apollo landings which took place between 1969 and 1972 provided scientists with huge amounts of lunar data in the form of photography and orbital experiment results, sample collections and surface operations. This document is meant to provide an introduction to the lunar exploration missions of the Apollo program. It provides information at a general level. It also offers links to more detailed information at this and other sites

Google Moon (Apollo Landing Sites)
Apollo Landing Sites [62KB PDF file]
Exploring the Moon Educator Guide [7MB PDF file]
Landing Site Studies
Apollo Era Documents

Apollo 15 Mission Index Map
Reports/Apollo 17/Sources

The Apollo Missions 40 Years Later
40th Anniversary
The Apollo Missions
Apollo Sites Revisited

The Grail Mission
The GRAIL Mission: A Fact Sheet
View the student-requested images
More information about MoonKAM,
More information about GRAIL
Lunar Meteorites
Lunar Meteorites
List of Lunar Meteorites
The Lunar Meteorite Compendium
Antarctic Search for Meteorite (ANSMET)
Antarctic Meteorite Curation Office
More informatrion about Lunar Meteorites
Moon Phases
Moonrise and Moonset Photography Tips and Tricks

Moon Calculator – find times for moonrise, moonset and more

Moon Phase Calculator – Calculate Moon Phases for any year

Moon Calendar

Check the Moon Phases for your country here

Day and Night World Map – See which parts of the Earth are currently illuminated by the Sun

Seasons Calculator – Find times for equinoxes and solstices
Moon Conspiracies